HOME  CDS Tutorial Manual
Precision Stadia
 
This tutorial / white paper explains the improvements we have been doing to the stadia entry, and adjustment routines. The following improvements have been achieved
  • The stadia now accepts decimal seconds. At present this is hardwired to display to the 1 hundredth of a seconds
  • We have added in an optional vertical refraction coefficient. Leave this value at 0 for no correction. A value of 14 is recommended ( metric only)
  • We have added in the appropriate corrections to a Geoid if wanted. If this option is ticked the appropriate correction is applied. At present we have MGA, and ISG predefined as well as a Custom option for other geoids.
  • Least squares network adjustment has also been added in
 
Displaying precision stadia
 
The precision stadia type is a new type which is included as well as the “Electronic Stadia” type that has been included for the last 18 years plus. Unless you need the geoid corrections or a least squares adjustment we suggest that you continue to use the existing version.
From the entry menu you will see the new option precision stadia. Simply click on it. Select new or existing as you always have. If you only have an existing “Electronic Stadia” file then this can be brought up as well. Click on the browse button and select a file type as stad – . The program will open up the existing stadia as a precision stadia display. On saving the file a new precision stadia file is created. The existing stadia file is not affected.
 
Opening supplied data
 
If you point your web browser to ftp.foresoft.com then you can download and save the file geoid_stad_example.cab into your appropriate data directory. Open up CDS and select options. Select the “Restore data” item and browse to the geoid_stad_example.cab file. Restore this data.
From the file menu select “open” and browse to the saved file. Select the “db.geoid_stad_example” file and a blank job will open. To bring up the new precision stadia file select “Entry” and then “Precision Stadia”. The following screen will be displayed.
 
 
 
 
The observant ones will notice the new tool bar. The following functions have been added or shown on the toolbar.
  • The calculator icon recalculates the coordinates
  • The tick box “Geoid Correction”. Tick this if you want the calculated coordinates to be corrected to the appropriately define Geoid. For eg MGA, ISG or whichever you select.
  • Geoid parameters. Click on the circle (actually a flattened version of the Earth ) to bring up a dialog box were you can either select a predefined Geoid, eg MGA or enter your own values. The dialog box is shown opposite
  • Vertical refraction value. Leave at 0 for no correction.
  • Least squares adjustment. Click on the two box's icon.
 
 
 
 
The data supplied is MGA so make sure that the MGA geodetic values are selected. To check on the operation of these corrections I suggest that you open up the precision stadia as described above. For our first calc's we are going to assume it is a plane and there is no vertical refraction coefficient specified. Click on the calculate icon and display the Eastings, Northings and Height displayed. As a quick check I suggest that you note the coordinates of the check-shot back to Stn 2 as a comparison with the defined values. Next i suggest that you enter a value of 14 for the vertical refraction coefficient and calculate again. Next I suggest that you tick the Geoid selection tick box. First make sure though that the Geoid parameters are for MGA. Each calculated value should be closed to the reference value. I have summarized the results below:
 
 
East
North
Height
Stn Coordinates
347166.813
6361107.535
99.169
Plane calculations
347166.819
6361107.509
99.158
Plane + vertical refraction
347166.819
6361107.509
99.162
Geoid + vertical refraction
347166.812
6361107.538
99.162
 
 
By inspection we can see that we are heading in the right direction.
 
Least Squares
 
Pressing the Least Squares Icon will run Least Squares on the network. First fill in the appropriate values for “distance accuracy” in mm's, “Parts per Million” typically 3 or 5 and “angle accuracy” in secs. Simply press the Continue button and the least squares correction is applied. View the results and if happy create the printable output for your archives. The corrected coordinates are copied back into the precision stadia. Pressing the cancel button will recalculate the coordinates without least squares correction.
The least squares report is shown below:
 
 
 
Using ń 5mm + 3 ppm and 5 seconds
and a Vertical Refraction correction of 0 sec/Km.
 
  Fixed Points
  Point  Easting    Northing    Height
     1  347113.545 6361334.291    90.373
     2  347166.813 6361107.535    99.169
     8  347340.490 6361421.048    91.082
 
                 Reduced Directions                       Approximate Coordinates
    At    To Horizontal Vertical Distance  HOI  HOT  Point   Easting    Northing     Height
    1     2 166.4649  87.5923   233.099 1.903 1.295     2  347166.812 6361107.538    99.162
    1     3  70.4332  89.4946   247.457 1.903 1.555     3  347347.101 6361415.965    91.462
    1     5 342.2659  90.4702   239.605 1.903 1.295     5  347041.309 6361562.693    87.707
    1     4 344.2216  90.5328   183.644 1.903 1.295     4  347064.082 6361511.101    88.127
    3     1 250.4332  90.1024   247.456 1.550 1.903     1  347113.546 6361334.291    90.364
    3     6  85.1346  90.1056   139.022 1.550 1.545     6  347485.623 6361427.525    91.026
    3     7 346.0118  92.2919    88.312 1.550 1.295     7  347325.791 6361501.570    87.883
    3     8 307.3836  94.2239     8.360 1.550 1.295     8  347340.501 6361421.055    91.079
    6     3 265.1346  89.4905   139.021 1.543 1.550     3  347347.102 6361415.965    91.462
    6     9 345.3616  91.1318   112.764 1.543 1.542     9  347457.598 6361536.710    88.624
    6    10 166.3845  87.2555   120.935 1.543 1.295    10  347513.524 6361309.993    96.694
    9     6 165.3616  88.4645   112.765 1.540 1.543     6  347485.623 6361427.524    91.024
    9     7 255.0352  90.2454   136.426 1.540 1.295     7  347325.801 6361501.554    87.882
    9    11 271.5558  90.3815    55.210 1.540 1.295    11  347402.430 6361538.571    88.255
    7     9  75.0352  89.4718   136.432 1.527 1.295     9  347457.606 6361536.712    88.619
    7     3 166.0111  87.4928    88.289 1.527 1.295     3  347347.113 6361415.952    91.466
    7    13  11.2802  90.0429    86.710 1.527 1.587    13  347343.037 6361586.522    87.709
    7    12  43.2902  90.4642    34.317 1.527 1.295    12  347349.411 6361526.447    87.648
   13     7 191.2802  89.5531    86.713 1.587 1.527     7  347325.800 6361501.551    87.883
   13    14 268.1257  90.3030    84.735 1.587 1.515    14  347258.357 6361583.884    87.030
   13    15 278.0726  92.4425     7.590 1.587 1.295    15  347335.533 6361587.593    87.638
   14    13  88.1257  89.2938    84.735 1.510 1.587    13  347343.037 6361586.522    87.702
   14    16  98.5120  89.5548    67.778 1.510 1.295    16  347325.319 6361573.451    87.328
   14    17  81.1058  89.4828    62.654 1.510 1.295    17  347320.263 6361593.487    87.455
   14    18  83.5118  89.5649    42.912 1.510 1.295    18  347301.017 6361588.477    87.285
   14    19  97.5244  92.1127    14.518 1.510 1.295    19  347272.726 6361581.896    86.690
   14    20 157.3748  96.5429     5.807 1.510 1.295    20  347260.551 6361578.554    86.546
   14    21 174.0349  90.0957    56.782 1.510 1.295    21  347264.229 6361527.414    87.081
   14    22 258.0954  90.1350    86.951 1.510 1.543    22  347173.266 6361566.053    86.648
   22    14  78.0954  89.4617    86.953 1.538 1.515    14  347258.359 6361583.884    87.018
   22     4 243.1610  89.1725   122.260 1.538 1.590     4  347064.094 6361511.072    88.111
   22    23 188.2416  89.2759    69.242 1.538 1.370    23  347163.148 6361497.566    87.461
   22    24 204.1335  89.5821    73.149 1.538 1.300    24  347143.254 6361499.355    86.921
   22    25 168.5035  89.5926    58.365 1.538 1.300    25  347184.558 6361508.798    86.895
   22    26 154.4705  90.0503    59.540 1.538 1.300    26  347198.628 6361512.193    86.798
   22    27 149.0923  90.1712    41.387 1.538 1.300    27  347194.482 6361530.524    86.679
   22    28 135.0314  90.4527    22.698 1.538 1.300    28  347189.298 6361549.992    86.585
   22    29 110.2831  91.1455    14.634 1.538 1.300    29  347186.971 6361560.936    86.567
   22    30  90.3622  90.3128    32.052 1.538 1.300    30  347205.311 6361565.714    86.592
   22    31  85.2335  90.3955    49.362 1.538 1.300    31  347222.459 6361570.017    86.313
   22    32 136.4128  89.1246    96.773 1.538 1.300    32  347239.049 6361495.102    88.216
    4     1 164.2216  89.2344   183.628 1.587 1.295     1  347113.556 6361334.266    90.342
    4     5 336.1046  90.4318    56.409 1.587 1.295     5  347041.317 6361562.665    87.693
    4    22  63.1627  90.4244   122.262 1.587 1.540    22  347173.273 6361566.045    86.639
    4    41 329.4600  90.2816    26.972 1.587 1.300    41  347050.515 6361534.372    88.176
    4    42 327.0742  90.4727    16.234 1.587 1.300    42  347055.285 6361524.704    88.174
    4    33 312.5825  91.0259     7.767 1.587 1.300    33  347058.413 6361516.365    88.256
    4    34 237.2932  91.4401     3.457 1.587 1.300    34  347061.181 6361509.215    88.293
    4    35 181.1859  90.4207     8.913 1.587 1.300    35  347063.890 6361502.163    88.289
    4    36 173.1430  90.1442    14.965 1.587 1.300    36  347065.855 6361496.213    88.334
    4    37 168.4647  90.0639    29.112 1.587 1.300    37  347069.758 6361482.520    88.342
    4    38 167.2409  89.5642    50.347 1.587 1.300    38  347075.074 6361461.943    88.446
    4    39 107.0107  91.1209    59.484 1.587 1.300    39  347120.954 6361493.668    87.150
    4    40 113.0424  94.4332    10.311 1.587 1.300    40  347073.547 6361507.045    87.548
 
                Misclose
    At   To   deast   dnorth  dheight
    1     2  -0.0006   0.0027  -0.0112
    1     3   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0042
    1     5   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0039
    1     4   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0023
    3     1   0.0010   0.0003  -0.0128
    3     6   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0013
    3     7   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0005
    3     8   0.0112   0.0068  -0.0033
    6     3   0.0010   0.0001  -0.0014
    6     9   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0009
    6    10   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0010
    9     6   0.0003  -0.0010  -0.0028
    9     7   0.0097  -0.0161  -0.0022
    9    11   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0002
    7     9  -0.0014   0.0183  -0.0049
    7     3   0.0021   0.0040   0.0045
    7    13  -0.0097   0.0161   0.0005
    7    12  -0.0097   0.0161   0.0009
   13     7   0.0092  -0.0190  -0.0005
   13    14   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0005
   13    15   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0000
   14    13   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0078
   14    16   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0003
   14    17   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0003
   14    18   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0001
   14    19   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0000
   14    20   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0000
   14    21   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0002
   14    22   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0005
   22    14   0.0020   0.0004  -0.0124
   22     4   0.0119  -0.0293  -0.0173
   22    23   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0003
   22    24   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0004
   22    25   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0002
   22    26   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0002
   22    27   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0001
   22    28   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0000
   22    29   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0000
   22    30   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0001
   22    31   0.0000   0.0000  -0.0002
   22    32   0.5821   0.5487  -0.0006
    4     1  -0.0010   0.0039  -0.0166
    4     5  -0.0047   0.0017   0.0019
    4    22  -0.0057   0.0211   0.0070
    4    41  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0163
    4    42  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0163
    4    33  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0163
    4    34  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0163
    4    35  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0163
    4    36  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0163
    4    37  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0162
    4    38  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0161
    4    39  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0161
    4    40  -0.0119   0.0293   0.0163
 
Point  East       Adj      Adj.East     North     Adj     Adj.North      Height   Adj   Adj.Height
    1 347113.545                     6361334.291                          90.373
    2 347166.813                     6361107.535                          99.169
    8 347340.490                     6361421.048                          91.082
    3 347347.101 -0.0047 347347.0960 6361415.965 -0.0024 6361415.9621     91.462  0.0035     91.4653
    5 347041.309 -0.0039 347041.3056 6361562.693 -0.0025 6361562.6903     87.707  0.0033     87.7101
    4 347064.082  0.0001 347064.0824 6361511.101 -0.0059 6361511.0954     88.127  0.0031     88.1303
    6 347485.623 -0.0075 347485.6153 6361427.525  0.0004 6361427.5255     91.026  0.0023     91.0283
    7 347325.791 -0.0049 347325.7864 6361501.570 -0.0065 6361501.5632     87.883  0.0024     87.8851
    9 347457.598 -0.0083 347457.5895 6361536.710  0.0077 6361536.7175     88.624  0.0023     88.6259
   10 347513.524 -0.0075 347513.5162 6361309.993  0.0004 6361309.9938     96.694  0.0013     96.6949
   11 347402.430 -0.0083 347402.4213 6361538.571  0.0077 6361538.5791     88.255  0.0021     88.2566
   13 347343.037 -0.0139 347343.0233 6361586.522  0.0157 6361586.5375     87.709  0.0035     87.7127
   12 347349.411 -0.0146 347349.3964 6361526.447  0.0096 6361526.4570     87.648  0.0033     87.6509
   14 347258.357 -0.0118 347258.3456 6361583.884  0.0164 6361583.9003     87.030  0.0078     87.0376
   15 347335.533 -0.0139 347335.5191 6361587.593  0.0157 6361587.6087     87.638  0.0035     87.6418
   16 347325.319 -0.0118 347325.3072 6361573.451  0.0164 6361573.4677     87.328  0.0074     87.3354
   17 347320.263 -0.0118 347320.2510 6361593.487  0.0164 6361593.5029     87.455  0.0075     87.4628
   18 347301.017 -0.0118 347301.0056 6361588.477  0.0164 6361588.4933     87.285  0.0076     87.2924
   19 347272.726 -0.0118 347272.7143 6361581.896  0.0164 6361581.9119     86.690  0.0077     86.6976
   20 347260.551 -0.0118 347260.5394 6361578.554  0.0164 6361578.5700     86.546  0.0078     86.5542
   21 347264.229 -0.0118 347264.2176 6361527.414  0.0164 6361527.4302     87.081  0.0075     87.0883
   22 347173.266 -0.0107 347173.2556 6361566.053  0.0171 6361566.0702     86.648  0.0143     86.6619
   23 347163.148 -0.0107 347163.1370 6361497.566  0.0171 6361497.5834     87.461  0.0140     87.4747
   24 347143.254 -0.0107 347143.2433 6361499.355  0.0171 6361499.3717     86.921  0.0140     86.9350
   25 347184.558 -0.0107 347184.5477 6361508.798  0.0171 6361508.8155     86.895  0.0141     86.9095
   26 347198.628 -0.0107 347198.6177 6361512.193  0.0171 6361512.2104     86.798  0.0141     86.8124
   27 347194.482 -0.0107 347194.4717 6361530.524  0.0171 6361530.5415     86.679  0.0142     86.6928
   28 347189.298 -0.0107 347189.2870 6361549.992  0.0171 6361550.0086     86.585  0.0143     86.5998
   29 347186.971 -0.0107 347186.9601 6361560.936  0.0171 6361560.9530     86.567  0.0143     86.5810
   30 347205.311 -0.0107 347205.3004 6361565.714  0.0171 6361565.7312     86.592  0.0143     86.6065
   31 347222.459 -0.0107 347222.4486 6361570.017  0.0171 6361570.0342     86.313  0.0142     86.3267
   32 347239.049  0.5715 347239.6207 6361495.102  0.5658 6361495.6674     88.216  0.0137     88.2294
   41 347050.515 -0.0119 347050.5035 6361534.372  0.0234 6361534.3950     88.176  0.0193     88.1955
   42 347055.285 -0.0119 347055.2731 6361524.704  0.0234 6361524.7271     88.174  0.0194     88.1932
   33 347058.413 -0.0119 347058.4012 6361516.365  0.0234 6361516.3883     88.256  0.0194     88.2750
   34 347061.181 -0.0119 347061.1687 6361509.215  0.0234 6361509.2386     88.293  0.0194     88.3127
   35 347063.890 -0.0119 347063.8777 6361502.163  0.0234 6361502.1865     88.289  0.0194     88.3081
   36 347065.855 -0.0119 347065.8433 6361496.213  0.0234 6361496.2364     88.334  0.0194     88.3533
   37 347069.758 -0.0119 347069.7464 6361482.520  0.0234 6361482.5435     88.342  0.0193     88.3610
   38 347075.074 -0.0119 347075.0618 6361461.943  0.0234 6361461.9667     88.446  0.0192     88.4656
   39 347120.954 -0.0119 347120.9419 6361493.668  0.0234 6361493.6916     87.150  0.0192     87.1690
   40 347073.547 -0.0119 347073.5351 6361507.045  0.0234 6361507.0687     87.548  0.0194     87.5679
 
                  Residuals
    At  To  Horizontal Corr      Distance  Corr
  Stn.Stn.              secs.
    1     2 166.4649    -0.000    232.929   0.0028
    1     3  70.4332     0.583    247.419  -0.0053
    1     5 342.2659    -3.865    239.551  -0.0012
    1     4 344.2216    -1.717    183.593  -0.0057
    3     1 250.4332     0.646    247.419  -0.0042
    3     6  85.1346    -4.511    139.001  -0.0025
    3     7 346.0118    -2.631     88.214  -0.0039
    3     8 307.3836  -184.723      8.337   0.0025
    6     3 265.1346    -4.502    139.001  -0.0015
    6     9 345.3616     1.855    112.731   0.0072
    6    10 166.3845    -0.000    120.798  -0.0000
    9     6 165.3616     1.940    112.731   0.0062
    9     7 255.0352     5.274    136.411   0.0056
    9    11 271.5558     0.000     55.200   0.0000
    7     9  75.0352     5.247    136.411  -0.0030
    7     3 166.0111     4.435     88.214  -0.0006
    7    13  11.2802    -1.213     86.705   0.0060
    7    12  43.2902    -0.000     34.309   0.0000
   13     7 191.2802    -1.147     86.705   0.0030
   13    14 268.1257     1.594     84.719  -0.0022
   13    15 278.0726    -0.000      7.580  -0.0000
   14    13  88.1257     1.592     84.719  -0.0022
   14    16  98.5120    -0.000     67.769  -0.0000
   14    17  81.1058    -0.000     62.646   0.0000
   14    18  83.5118     0.000     42.907  -0.0000
   14    19  97.5244    -0.000     14.506  -0.0000
   14    20 157.3748     0.000      5.764   0.0000
   14    21 174.0349    -0.000     56.775  -0.0000
   14    22 258.0954     1.132     86.938  -0.0012
   22    14  78.0954     1.118     86.938  -0.0032
   22     4 243.1610    10.343    122.233  -0.0017
   22    23 188.2416    -0.000     69.230   0.0000
   22    24 204.1335    -0.000     73.140   0.0000
   22    25 168.5035     0.000     58.358   0.0000
   22    26 154.4705     0.000     59.532  -0.0000
   22    27 149.0923    -0.000     41.381  -0.0000
   22    28 135.0314    -0.000     22.693  -0.0000
   22    29 110.2831    -0.000     14.629  -0.0000
   22    30  90.3622    -0.000     32.047  -0.0000
   22    31  85.2335     0.000     49.352  -0.0000
   22    32 136.4128     0.000     96.752   0.0000
    4     1 164.2216    -1.580    183.593  -0.0017
    4     5 336.1046     4.835     56.399   0.0013
    4    22  63.1627    -6.700    122.233  -0.0037
    4    41 329.4600     0.000     26.968   0.0000
    4    42 327.0742     0.000     16.230   0.0000
    4    33 312.5825    -0.000      7.765  -0.0000
    4    34 237.2932     0.000      3.455   0.0000
    4    35 181.1859     0.000      8.911   0.0000
    4    36 173.1430     0.000     14.963   0.0000
    4    37 168.4647     0.000     29.108   0.0000
    4    38 167.2409     0.000     50.341   0.0000
    4    39 107.0107    -0.000     59.463  -0.0000
    4    40 113.0424    -0.000     10.275  -0.0000
 
We can now store the corrected points into the CDS database.